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February 3 2021



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Towards a Low Carbon and
Climate-resilient Brunei Darussalam

Brunei Darussalam adopts a Whole-of-Nation approach in addressing adverse changing climate patterns. Through effective policies, careful planning and management, Brunei Darussalam is committed to pave low carbon and climate-resilient pathways for a sustainable nation. This Brunei Darussalam National Climate Change Policy underpins the principles, values and strategies to reduce carbon emissions, increase carbon sink and strengthen climate resilience nationwide.

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The Brunei Darussalam National Climate Change Policy shall adopt ten key strategies with 2035 as a general target year.


Industrial Emissions

Reduce overall emissions in the industrial sector through zero routine flaring and to As Low As Reasonably Practicable (ALARP).

Strategy 01 - Industrial Emissions

This strategy seeks to lower carbon intensity from the industries in Brunei Darussalam through zero routine flaring and to "As Low As Reasonably Practicable" (ALARP). The main focus for the Brunei Darussalam National Climate Change Policy is to reduce industrial emissions across the country by 2035.


Forest Cover

Increase carbon sink through afforestation and reforestation with a target of planting 500,000 new trees.

Strategy 02 - Forest Cover

This strategy seeks to increase Brunei Darussalam’s carbon sink through afforestation and reforestation programmes with a target of planting 500,000 new trees by 2035.


Electric Vehicles

Increase total share of Electric Vehicles to 60% of total annual vehicle sales.

Strategy 03 - Electric Vehicles

This strategy seeks to reduce Brunei Darussalam's carbon emissions from the land transportation sector by increasing Electric Vehicles (EV) to 60% of total vehicle sales by 2035.


Renewable Energy

Increase total share of renewable energy to at least 30% of total capacity in the power generation mix.

Strategy 04 - Renewable Energy

This strategy seeks to ensure a smooth transition for nationwide adoption and use of renewable energy technologies. This strategy focuses on increasing total share of renewable energy to at least 30% of the total capacity in the power generation mix using mainly solar photovoltaic (PV) by 2035.


Power Management

Reduce GHG emissions by at least 10% through better supply and demand management of electricity consumption.

Strategy 05 - Power Management

This strategy seeks to reduce carbon emissions contribution from the power sector by focusing on increasing energy efficiency and conservation at both supply and demand side. The aim is to reduce GHG emissions from power generation by at least 10% by 2035 (from BAU).


Carbon Pricing

Impose price on carbon emissions.

Strategy 06 - Carbon Pricing

This strategy seeks to reduce carbon intensity from all industrial sectors and new power utilities in Brunei Darussalam through internalising the societal cost of carbon emissions and impending destructions from climate impacts. This strategy intends to introduce carbon pricing applicable to all industrial facilities emitting beyond a carbon emission limit threshold at a carbon price per CO2e by 2025.


Waste Management

Reduce municipal waste to landfills to 1kg/person/day.

Strategy 07 - Waste Management

This strategy seeks to reduce greenhouse gas contribution, and reduce waste to 1kg per person per day, mainly methane (CH4) gas emissions by minimising the amount of waste that needs to be disposed of through waste minimisation, adoption of best practices and innovative technologies.


Climate Resilience & Adaptation

Increase capacity to adapt to climate impacts and in achieving resilience.

Strategy 08 - Climate Resilience & Adaptation

This strategy seeks to strengthen Brunei Darussalam’s resilience against climate change risks and increase its capacity to adapt to the impacts of the changing climate. Brunei Darussalam is prone to four key risks including; flood, forest fires, strong wind and land slides.


Carbon Inventory

Mandatory monthly and annual reporting of carbon inventory.

Strategy 09 - Carbon Inventory

This strategy intends to develop a directive to all facilities and agents that emit and absorb GHG to report their greenhouse gas data, targeted to commence in 2021. The mandatory reporting seek to promote transparency and robustness in the national carbon emissions and sinks data, intended to provide a better understanding of the level of GHG emissions.


Awareness & Education

Increase awareness and education surrounding mitigation and adaptation responses against climate change.

Strategy 10 - Awareness & Education

This strategy aims to foster awareness and increase education in matters pertaining to climate change mitigation and adaptation efforts in all sectors of society, in line with our Whole-of-Nation approach, including the public, students and all stakeholders in the economic sector.

Causes of Climate Change

In the simplest term, Greenhouse gas (GHG) emitted will accumulate over the Earth’s atmosphere, creating a phenomenon called the greenhouse effect where it act as a blanket that traps the radiation (heat) from the sun and make it unable to escape the earth. Overtime this warms up the planet in a phenomenon called Global Warming.

Human activities such as the burning of fuel are the major contributor to the release of GHG. High GHG emission can bring disastrous consequences. Global warming are known to increase the frequency and intensity of the natural disasters such as forest fires and flooding as well as sea level rise. These changes cause the atmosphere to trap more heat than it used to, leading to a warmer Earth.

According to Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) scientists, the temperature has already risen by 1 degree Celsius as a result of unchecked GHG emissions. The scientists have warned that an increase of more than 2 degrees will be devastating to all life.


Protokol Hijau

Protokol Hijau outlines the steps that need to be implemented by the public sector in order to lead climate action and influence change by example and achieve the nation’s targets set out by the Brunei Darussalam National Climate Change Policy. The Government sector contributes to an estimated 23% of the total national electricity consumption annually and as much as 25% of the total national water consumption across all public sector.

The objective of this guideline is to reduce the government’s carbon footprint across all public sector premises, taking into account the following key elements:

Energy usage

Water usage

Paper usage

Plastic usage

Solid waste disposal

Management of official events


Protokol Hijau was officially launched on 30th January 2021.

Photo credit to NASA.

Brunei Darussalam Nationally Determined
Contribution (NDC) 2020

Nationally Determined Contributions (NDCs) are a key tool for measuring what each country is doing in the area of climate change.

It describes how each country plans to reduce their respective greenhouse gas emissions and adapt to climate change. Brunei Darussalam, as with the rest of the world recognises and shares the same concern over the challenges posed by climate change. Hence, Brunei Darussalam is committed to a reduction in greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions by 20% relative to Business-As-Usual levels by 2030.