The United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change(UNFCCC)
A Rio Convention that was adopted at the "20th anniversary of the Rio Earth Summit” in 1992.
Today, it has near-universal membership with 197 countries that have ratified the Convention are called Parties to the Convention.
The ultimate objective of the UNFCCC is to stabilize greenhouse gas (GHG) concentrations at a level that would prevent dangerous anthropogenic (human induced) interference with the climate system.
- Ratification: 7 August 2007
- Entry into force: 5 November 2007
An international agreement linked to the UNFCCC, which commits industrialised country Parties by setting internationally binding emission reduction targets. Adopted in 1997.
The Kyoto Protocol places a heavier burden on developed nations under the principle of "common but differentiated responsibilities” recognising the fact that developed countries are principally responsible for the current high levels of GHG emissions in the atmosphere as a result of more than 150 years of industrial activity.
Its first commitment period started in 2008 and ended in 2012.
- Ratification: 20 August 2009
- Entry into force: 18 November 2009
Doha Amendment to the Kyoto Protocol established the Kyoto Protocol’s second commit period from 2013 and 2020. Adopted in 2012. The Doha Amendment has not entered into force. The Amendment will enter into force when 144 Parties, or three-quarters of Parties to the Kyoto Protocol, have submitted their instruments of acceptance to the Depositary. 14 ratifications away from entry into force.
The Paris Agreement builds upon the UNFCCC and for the first time brings all nations into a common cause to undertake ambitious efforts to combat climate change and adapt to its effects, with enhanced support to assist developing countries to do so.
It's central aim is to strengthen the global response to the threat of climate change by keeping a global temperature rise this century well below 2 degrees Celsius above pre-industrial levels and to pursue efforts to limit the temperature increase even further to 1.5 degrees Celsius.