There are three (3) United Nations legal instruments that governs international cooperation to combat climate change and its adverse effects to human and the ecosystem:
The United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change(UNFCCC)
A Rio Convention that was adopted at the "20th anniversary of the Rio Earth Summit” in 1992.
Today, it has near-universal membership with 197 countries that have ratified the Convention are called Parties to the Convention.
The ultimate objective of the UNFCCC is to stabilize greenhouse gas (GHG) concentrations at a level that would prevent dangerous anthropogenic (human induced) interference with the climate system.
- Ratification: 7 August 2007
- Entry into force: 5 November 2007
An international agreement linked to the UNFCCC, which commits industrialised country Parties by setting internationally binding emission reduction targets. Adopted in 1997.
The Kyoto Protocol places a heavier burden on developed nations under the principle of "common but differentiated responsibilities” recognising the fact that developed countries are principally responsible for the current high levels of GHG emissions in the atmosphere as a result of more than 150 years of industrial activity.
Its first commitment period started in 2008 and ended in 2012.
- Ratification: 20 August 2009
- Entry into force: 18 November 2009
Doha Amendment to the Kyoto Protocol established the Kyoto Protocol’s second commit period from 2013 and 2020. Adopted in 2012. The Doha Amendment has not entered into force. The Amendment will enter into force when 144 Parties, or three-quarters of Parties to the Kyoto Protocol, have submitted their instruments of acceptance to the Depositary. 14 ratifications away from entry into force.
The Paris Agreement builds upon the UNFCCC and for the first time brings all nations into a common cause to undertake ambitious efforts to combat climate change and adapt to its effects, with enhanced support to assist developing countries to do so.
It's central aim is to strengthen the global response to the threat of climate change by keeping a global temperature rise this century well below 2 degrees Celsius above pre-industrial levels and to pursue efforts to limit the temperature increase even further to 1.5 degrees Celsius.
- Ratification: 21 September 2016
- Entry into force: 4 November 2016
The Conference of Parties (COP) is the supreme decision-making body of the Convention. All States that are Parties to the Convention are represented at the COP, at which they review the implementation of the Convention and any other legal instruments that the COP adopts and take decisions necessary to promote the effective implementation of the Convention, including institutional and administrative arrangements.
A key task for the COP is to review the national communications and emission inventories submitted by Parties. Based on this information, the COP assesses the effects of the measures taken by Parties and the progress made in achieving the ultimate objective of the Convention. The COP meets every year, unless the Parties decide otherwise.
During COP27, Egypt had announced climate ambitions, including:
- Expressed intention to move towards net-zero emissions by 2050.
- Joined other 140 countries in endorsing the “Glasgow Leaders Declaration on Forest and Land Use.” We pledged commitment to preserve our forests, reverse deforestation and practice sustainable agriculture.
- Endorsed the “Global Coal-to-Clean Power Transition Statement” along with 45 other countries. We commit to accelerate deployment of renewable energy and phase out the use of coal by 2050.
- As 2021 ASEAN Chair, Brunei presented the ASEAN Joint Statement on Climate Change to COP26. The statement can be found HERE.
Brunei Darussalam’s Nationally Determined Contribution (NDC)
Nationally Determined Contributions are national climate plans highlighting climate actions, including climate related targets, policies and measures governments aims to implement in response to climate change and as a contribution to global climate action.
It is the central element for implementing the Paris Agreement.
Brunei Darussalam submitted its first NDC to the UNFCCC on 31 December 2020 that demonstrates our ambitious climate commitment towards a low carbon and climate-resilient sustainable nation.
Brunei Darussalam is committed to a reduction in greenhouse gas emissions by 20% relative to Business-As-Usual levels by 2030.
The NDC was developed in a whole-of-nation approach through a multi-sectoral climate change institutional governance in addressing the challenges and opportunities of climate change at a national level.
The governance comprising of key government agencies, private sector industry players, professional associations, academia and non-governmental organisations and youth ensure a multi-sectoral collaborative process to approach climate change mitigation, adaptation, resilience and support.