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February 3 2021



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Towards a Low Carbon and
Climate-resilient Brunei Darussalam

Brunei Darussalam adopts a Whole-of-Nation approach in addressing adverse changing climate patterns. Through effective policies, careful planning and management, Brunei Darussalam is committed to pave low carbon and climate-resilient pathways for a sustainable nation. This Brunei Darussalam National Climate Change Policy underpins the principles, values and strategies to reduce carbon emissions, increase carbon sink and strengthen climate resilience nationwide.

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The Brunei Darussalam National Climate Change Policy shall adopt ten key strategies with 2035 as a general target year.


Industrial Emissions

Reduce overall emissions in the industrial sector through zero routine flaring and to As Low As Reasonably Practicable (ALARP).

Strategy 01 - Industrial Emissions

This strategy seeks to lower carbon intensity from the industries in Brunei Darussalam through zero routine flaring and to "As Low As Reasonably Practicable" (ALARP). The main focus for the Brunei Darussalam National Climate Change Policy is to reduce industrial emissions across the country by 2035.


Forest Cover

Increase carbon sink through afforestation and reforestation with a target of planting 500,000 new trees.

Strategy 02 - Forest Cover

This strategy seeks to increase Brunei Darussalam’s carbon sink through afforestation and reforestation programmes with a target of planting 500,000 new trees by 2035.


Electric Vehicles

Increase total share of Electric Vehicles to 60% of total annual vehicle sales.

Strategy 03 - Electric Vehicles

This strategy seeks to reduce Brunei Darussalam's carbon emissions from the land transportation sector by increasing Electric Vehicles (EV) to 60% of total vehicle sales by 2035.


Renewable Energy

Increase total share of renewable energy to at least 30% of total capacity in the power generation mix.

Strategy 04 - Renewable Energy

This strategy seeks to ensure a smooth transition for nationwide adoption and use of renewable energy technologies. This strategy focuses on increasing total share of renewable energy to at least 30% of the total capacity in the power generation mix using mainly solar photovoltaic (PV) by 2035.


Power Management

Reduce GHG emissions by at least 10% through better supply and demand management of electricity consumption.

Strategy 05 - Power Management

This strategy seeks to reduce carbon emissions contribution from the power sector by focusing on increasing energy efficiency and conservation at both supply and demand side. The aim is to reduce GHG emissions from power generation by at least 10% by 2035 (from BAU).


Carbon Pricing

Impose price on carbon emissions.

Strategy 06 - Carbon Pricing

This strategy seeks to reduce carbon intensity from all industrial sectors and new power utilities in Brunei Darussalam through internalising the societal cost of carbon emissions and impending destructions from climate impacts. This strategy intends to introduce carbon pricing applicable to all industrial facilities emitting beyond a carbon emission limit threshold at a carbon price per CO2e by 2025.


Waste Management

Reduce municipal waste to landfills to 1kg/person/day.

Strategy 07 - Waste Management

This strategy seeks to reduce greenhouse gas contribution, and reduce waste to 1kg per person per day, mainly methane (CH4) gas emissions by minimising the amount of waste that needs to be disposed of through waste minimisation, adoption of best practices and innovative technologies.


Climate Resilience & Adaptation

Increase capacity to adapt to climate impacts and in achieving resilience.

Strategy 08 - Climate Resilience & Adaptation

This strategy seeks to strengthen Brunei Darussalam’s resilience against climate change risks and increase its capacity to adapt to the impacts of the changing climate. Brunei Darussalam is prone to four key risks including; flood, forest fires, strong wind and land slides.


Carbon Inventory

Mandatory monthly and annual reporting of carbon inventory.

Strategy 09 - Carbon Inventory

This strategy intends to develop a directive to all facilities and agents that emit and absorb GHG to report their greenhouse gas data, targeted to commence in 2021. The mandatory reporting seek to promote transparency and robustness in the national carbon emissions and sinks data, intended to provide a better understanding of the level of GHG emissions.


Awareness & Education

Increase awareness and education surrounding mitigation and adaptation responses against climate change.

Strategy 10 - Awareness & Education

This strategy aims to foster awareness and increase education in matters pertaining to climate change mitigation and adaptation efforts in all sectors of society, in line with our Whole-of-Nation approach, including the public, students and all stakeholders in the economic sector.

Directive on Mandatory Reporting on Greenhouse Gases (GHG)

The Strategy 9: Carbon Inventory focuses on enhancing transparency and reliability in Brunei Darussalam's national greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and removals by strengthening its Measuring, Reporting, and Verification (MRV) system. The Measuring, Reporting, and Verification (MRV) team, along with Sector Leads in various sectors, coordinate the preparation and submission of GHG Inventories. They follow established methodologies to estimate emissions and removals based on IPCC guidelines, ensuring consistency in reporting. Recently, the reporting of GHG emissions and removals became mandatory through the introduction of the Mandatory Reporting Directive GHG. Facilities emitting or removing GHGs must submit reports quarterly and annually, promoting transparency and accuracy. A centralized online reporting platform is being developed to standardize data reporting and provide a user-friendly overview of GHG data. Additionally, a quality assurance exercise was conducted in 2022 by an independent team to strengthen inventory quality and transparency.

Brunei Darussalam is obligated to communicate its GHG inventories to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) under the Paris Agreement through reports such as National Communications and Biennial Transparency Reports (BTRs). These reports, to be submitted every two and four years, respectively, ensure compliance with established standards. Although not mandatory, Brunei Darussalam conducts third-party verifications for its national GHG inventories prior to submission.

Overall, the Strategy aims to promote transparency and robustness in GHG emissions and removals through a strengthened MRV system. Mandatory reporting requirements, along with the development of a centralized reporting platform, facilitate timely and accurate data submission. Furthermore, quality assurance exercises and third-party verifications ensure compliance with international standards in communicating Brunei Darussalam's GHG inventories to the UNFCCC.


Protokol Hijau

by Muhammad Nasrullah Murni

As a carbon sink, forests have the ability to absorb and offset carbon emissions; and is a nature-based solution to mitigate climate change. However, deforestation, excessive carbon emissions and natural disasters such as forest fires, has degraded our forest and our carbon sink. This will ultimately affect our sustainability and livelihood.

The “26,000 Trees Campaign” is one of the initiatives in the Protokol Hijau guidelines, to support the implementation of the Brunei Darussalam National Climate Change Policy (BNCCP). The campaign is spearheaded by the government to lead by example in reducing the carbon footprint in addressing the issues of climate change. This tree planting initiative can restore the forest, which is crucial to reinforce carbon sink in the country.

Energy usage

Water usage

Paper usage

Plastic usage

Solid waste disposal

Management of official events


Protokol Hijau was officially launched on 30th January 2021.

Photo credit to NASA.

Brunei Darussalam Nationally Determined
Contribution (NDC) 2020

Nationally Determined Contributions (NDCs) are a key tool for measuring what each country is doing in the area of climate change.

It describes how each country plans to reduce their respective greenhouse gas emissions and adapt to climate change. Brunei Darussalam, as with the rest of the world recognises and shares the same concern over the challenges posed by climate change. Hence, Brunei Darussalam is committed to a reduction in greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions by 20% relative to Business-As-Usual levels by 2030.